Sarawak (Malay pronunciation: [saˈrawaʔ]) is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. It is also one of the founding members of the Malaysian federation alongside North Borneo (Sabah), Singapore (expelled in 1965) and the Federation of Malaya (Peninsula Malaysia or West Malaysia). Like Sabah, this territory has an autonomous law especially in immigration, which differentiates it from the rest of the Malaysian Peninsula states. Today, the state is known as Bumi Kenyalang ("Land of the Hornbills").
As of the 2010 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,399,839, making it the 4th most populous state in Malaysia. Due to the large area of Sarawak, it has the lowest population density in Malaysia, which stands at 22 people per km2. Sarawak also has some of the lowest population growth in Malaysia.
Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, Indians, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home villages to look for employment.